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Grassroots Lobbying vs. Direct Lobbying — What’s the Difference?

May 13, 2024

In the world of lobbying and public affairs, both direct and indirect lobbying play key roles. While both direct and indirect lobbying strategies aim to shape public policy outcomes, they use different tactics to influence policymakers.

Direct lobbying is aimed at engaging personally with the legislators and government officials who are key to shaping and implementing public policy. Direct lobbying activities are focused on specific laws or legislation and reflect a point of view on a policy outcome.

By contrast, the goal of indirect lobbying is to sway policymakers by shaping public opinion around a policy objective in the hope that this public pressure will impact decision-makers. Grassroots lobbying falls under the umbrella of indirect lobbying.

Understanding the nuances of both approaches to lobbying and how to implement them effectively can help government affairs professionals develop a winning public affairs strategy that best suits their goals and budget.

What is direct lobbying?

Direct lobbying is an integral part of the democratic process. This approach is a tried-and-true way to effectively engage with individual lawmakers. And while direct lobbyists have historically worked on behalf of specific policy interests or industries, it can also be a vehicle for advocating for policies that benefit the broader public.

Direct lobbying involves personal outreach to lawmakers, government officials, or regulatory bodies to influence their decisions or policies on behalf of an individual or organization with a vested interest in the outcome. Direct lobbying activities can include in-person meetings, phone calls, or written correspondence.

To be considered direct lobbying, these communications must refer to a view on a specific piece of legislation. Direct lobbyists usually provide valuable data, research, case studies, and testimonials aimed at persuading policymakers to support their position or cause.

What’s not direct lobbying?

Not all communication with an elected official or policymaker falls into the category of direct lobbying. General communication that doesn’t aim to influence a public official’s action on a particular law or bill isn’t considered direct lobbying, including:

  • Discussing broad social or economic topics
  • Sharing technical information, research, or analysis
  • Providing administrative assistance regarding interest group activities


What is grassroots lobbying?

Grassroots lobbying relies on the collective action of ordinary citizens to influence decision-makers. Whereas direct lobbying outreach strategies are directed at policymakers, grassroots lobbying activities might include:

  • Contacting elected officials about an issue
  • Collecting signatures on a petition
  • Attending public hearings or rallies
  • Organizing letter-writing and social media campaigns
  • Media outreach
  • Door-to-door canvassing

To be considered grassroots lobbying, the campaign organizer can’t state its position on specific legislation or encourage supporters to contact elected officials about that legislation – that would be considered direct lobbying.

Grassroots advocacy has a long tradition in the U.S. and is a cornerstone of democracy. Though it has long been associated with nonprofits and other interest groups, corporations and other private interests are increasingly engaging in grassroots lobbying activities as part of their larger public affairs strategy to shape public policy. Because grassroots campaigns are made up of the voters and constituents to whom they’re ultimately accountable, they can sometimes carry more weight with elected officials.

What is astroturf lobbying?

Astroturf lobbying is a deceptive practice in which organizations artificially create the appearance of grassroots support for a cause or issue. The practice typically involves tactics such as creating fake social media accounts and paying individuals to write letters or to attend rallies. The term “astroturf” comes from the idea that it’s not a real grassroots movement but rather a synthetic imitation.

A famous example of astroturf lobbying is Citizens for a Sound Economy, founded in the 1980s by the Koch family foundations. The group described itself as “hundreds of thousands of grassroots citizens dedicated to free markets and limited government,” but was instead a mouthpiece for the founders’ personal political views and business interests. The group produced numerous policy papers, appeared on radio and TV, and published op-eds denying the existence of global warming and acid rain. In 2003, the group split into Americans for Prosperity and FreedomWorks.

Astroturf lobbying misleads lawmakers and the public about the actual level of support for or opposition to political issues. This is partly why transparency and disclosure are critical in lobbying. The practice undermines the democratic process and ultimately erodes trust.

Pros and cons: direct lobbying and grassroots advocacy strategies

Different tactics are needed for different situations and intended outcomes. While there’s no one right approach to government advocacy, there are pros and cons to each type of lobbying.

Direct lobbying enables organizations to get personalized and focused engagement with individual policymakers. Government affairs professionals who foster strong relationships with elected officials, government agencies, legislative staff, and other stakeholders can get a more immediate understanding of the impact they’re having and react to changing political landscapes. To be successful, lobbyists need to understand what’s happening in Washington and have deep knowledge of relevant issues and policies, and how strategies and tactics evolve.

However, direct lobbying can sometimes have limited reach. It also has a reputation for being insider focused.

Grassroots advocacy is valued because it can reach a very broad audience, shape public opinion, and mobilize genuine public support on behalf of a cause. It can also be more cost-effective than direct lobbying – an important consideration for organizations with limited resources. That said, grassroots organizing requires a lot of investment in terms of time and energy and can take a while to yield results.

However, grassroots lobbying outcomes can be unpredictable. Grassroots campaigns rely on a coalition of many stakeholders – volunteers, organizers, community leaders, and advocacy groups – and require coordination to ensure a unified message. If elected officials don’t believe they’ll be held accountable by their constituents on the issue, they may not be swayed to support it.

Campaign budgets and spending on lobbying activities

The budget needs for grassroots and direct lobbying can be quite different. Because grassroots advocacy efforts are focused on reaching a broad audience, campaign spending generally goes toward advertising, social media, campaign websites, events, and media outreach.

Direct lobbying, on the other hand, is more targeted. It involves face-to-face meetings with lawmakers, attending hearings, and detailed policy research. Direct lobbying may have higher individual costs because it involves hiring experienced government affairs professionals or lobbying firms with valuable contacts and specialized knowledge. The budget for direct lobbying could include travel costs for a professional lobbyist to meet with lawmakers, legal advice, or public relations experts to help with messaging.

Combining direct lobbying and grassroots advocacy strategies for corporate public affairs

Organizations sometimes combine grassroots and direct lobbying to enhance their public affairs efforts. They may mobilize grassroots supporters to write letters, make phone calls, or post on social media to form the foundation of the campaign. At the same time, they’ll meet directly with policymakers to offer research, data, and other evidence to support their policy position. This kind of combined approach can help maximize influence on important public policy matters.

A recent example of a combined grassroots and direct lobbying effort is the Fight for $15 movement. Hundreds of fast-food workers organized grassroots labor strikes for higher wages, better working conditions, and the right to unionize. At the same time, government affairs professionals and the Service Employees International Union engaged with lawmakers directly to write and introduce legislation to raise the minimum wage.

Gain the advantage with Bloomberg Government

Whether you’re planning to implement grassroots advocacy strategies or a direct lobbying effort, Bloomberg Government is the definitive source for the policy intel and tools that government affairs professionals need – all in one place. No matter what your lobbying and public affairs goals are, our team of reporters and industry experts keeps you informed with custom news alerts and unlimited coverage of key policies and developing legislation.

Watch our on-demand webinar How Lobbying Firms Are Changing Their Structures and Advocacy Strategies for a deeper dive into how the lobbying business is changing – both in terms of how firms are structured and how their focus is expanding beyond the typical Washington issues and ways of conducting advocacy.

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